Test 1 - Tuesday, Sept. 25th - multiple choice and one detailed question.
1) Study Ch. 1 in in text **pages 2 & 3**
2) Study prefixes (both sheets)
3) Lab rules, safety, equipment.
4) Scientific Method
6) Life processes
Test on chapters 2 and 3 biochemistry: Friday, Oct. 19
- All forms of matter are composed of one or more elements. Be able to list the major elements in living things.
- Describe how protons, electrons, and neutrons are arranged into atoms and ions.
- Define the terms atomic number and atomic mass and be able to describe their significance.
- Atoms with the same atomic number but a different mass number are isotopes. List the isotopes of hydrogen and of carbon.
- Be able to describe radioisotopes and list three ways they are used in biology.
- The union between the electron structures of atoms is known as the chemical bond. Be able to list and describe the three types of chemical bonds found in living things.
- Be able to describe the distribution of electrons in the space around the nucleus of an atom.
- An atom tends to react with other atoms when its outermost shell is only partly filled with electrons. Be able to discuss why this happens.
- Be able to define the two types of ions and describe how ionic bonds form between positive and negative ions.
- In a covalent bond, atoms share electrons. List several elements that tend to form covalent bonds.
- Distinguish between a nonpolar covalent bond and a polar covalent bond and give an example of each.
- Define hydrogen bond and describe conditions under which hydrogen bonds form and cite one example.
- Explain what is meant by the polarity of the water molecule, and how the polarity of water molecules allows them to interact with one another.
Lots more question:
*****Cell Membrane Chapter 5 Quest is POSTPONED UNTIL AFTER VACATION*****
Watch the two videos below. They are extremely important:
Watch these two videos for a complete review of the chapter:
https://thecrashcourse.com/courses/biology- choose Membranes and Transport
study the vocabulary:
https://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/chapter-7-membrane-structure-and-function/deck/5548931 vocabulary Isaac must study
https://quizlet.com/34676536/learn complete this vocabulary quiz until you get all correct
https://quizlet.com/34676536/match matching for vocabulary
Practice test questions
Great game to play for hypertonic....
answer key for membrane questions:
Review by Videos for Quest in Biology
Ameba sisters- cell membrane:
1.first video on the membrane: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ptmlvtei8hw
2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L-osEc07vMs Stop at 6 minutes 20 seconds
3.STATE LAB: lab:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-_fL90BHL8
- Dissolved substances are called solutes; a fluid in which one or more substances can dissolve is called a solvent. Describe several solutions that you use everyday in terms of what is the solvent and what is the solute.
- Define acid and base and be able to cite an example of each.
- The concentration of free hydrogen ions in solutions is measured by the pH scale..
- Nearly all large biological molecules have theor organization influenced by interactions with water. Describe this interaction as it exists with carbohydrate molecules.
- Be able to list the three most abundant elements in living things.
- Each carbon atom can form as many as four covalent bonds with other carbon atoms as well as with other elements. Be able to explain why this is so.
- Be able to list the four main groups of organic molecules and their functions in living things.
- Enzymes are a special class of proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells. What about the structure of proteins allows for the reaction specificity that occurs with most enzymes.
- Condensation reactions result in the formation of covalent bonds between small molecules to form larger organic molecules. Be able to describe a condensation reaction in words.
- Be able to describe what occurs during a hydrolysis reaction.
- Be able to define carbohydrates and list their functions.
- The simplest carbohydrates are sugar monomers, the monosaccharides. Be able to give examples and their functions.
- A polysaccharide is a straight or branched chain of hundreds or thousands of sugar monomers, of the same or different kinds. Be able to give common examples and their functions.
- Be able to define lipids and to list their functions.
- Distinguish between a saturated fat and an unsaturated fat. Why is such a distinction a life and death matter for many people?
- A phospholipid has two fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol backbone. What is the importance of these molecules.
- Define steroids and describe their chemical structure. Be able to discuss the importance of the steroids known as cholesterol and hormones.
- Be able to describe proteins and cite their general functions.
- Be prepared to make a sketch and name the three parts of every amino acid.
- Describe the complex structure of a protein through its primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. How does this relate to the three-dimensional structure of proteins?
- Describe the three parts of every nucleotide..
- Be able to give the general functions of DNA and RNA molecules.
A short primer on bonding…
Most living things are mainly composed of different combinations of the same five elements. These elements are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus (mainly found in nucleic acids – which is not a focus for this test). Carbohydrates and fats are comprised of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Proteins are composed of a chain of amino acids. Amino acids are made of a central carbon bonded to 4 different groups: a carboxyl group (–COOH), an amino group (–NH2), a hydrogen atom (–H), and a side group that varies depending on the type of amino acid. Twenty common amino acids can combine in various ways to make different protein molecules. The sequence of amino acids in each protein is unique to that protein, so each protein has its own unique 3-D shape.
Why do these particular elements bond together to form organic molecules? What is unique to carbon that makes it the most important element in organic molecules? As you have learned, it is the number of valence electrons that allow certain elements to bond with one another. What do you think the mnemonic device “HONC 1-2-3-4” might mean?
If carbon has __4____ valence electrons, then it can form ___4_____ bond(s).
If hydrogen has___1___ valence electrons, then it can form ___1______ bond(s).
If oxygen has___6___ valence electrons, then it can form ____2_____ bond(s).
If nitrogen has__5____ valence electrons, then it can form ____3_____ bond(s).
Lots more question:
Acids and Bases:
Chapter 5 Cell Test:
Review Powerpoint: http://www.sc.chula.ac.th/courseware/2303101j/VIII-Cell.pdf
Review Section and short quiz:
Stop at page 52.
*****Cell Membrane Chapter 5 Quest is POSTPONED UNTIL AFTER VACATION*****
December 4th Test on Cell Membrane and Photosynthesis
Topics: Passive and Active Transport, Cell membrane structure, State Lab on Diffusion, Tonicity or Hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, Sodium-Potassium Pump, Receptor Mediated Protein transport, the red blood cell in different types of solutions, turgid, plasmolysis, crenate, and lysis.
Photosynthesisi: Light-ROYGBIV-Pigments-other wavelengths i.e. gamma rays, x-rays....,Law of Thermodynamics, Light dependent reation, Light independent reacion or Calvin Cycle, C3,C4,CAM planthttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQK3Yr4Sc_k
Lab review: http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab4/intro.htmlhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7u9_cnfR9Iw
look at all your notes and worksheets-study carefully. List any questions you have so that we may go over them.
Mitosis/Meiosis Test- Test Date: Jan. 18https://www.ucvts.tec.nj.us/
cms/lib5/NJ03001805/ Centricity/Domain/274/Meiosis% 20vs%20Mitosis%20PRACTICE% 20QUIZ%202012.pdf
DNA, REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION,TRANSLATION, AND THE SCIENTISTS- A SMALL AMOUNT ON MUTATIONS TEST FEB. 7THhttps://www.manhassetschools.
org/cms/lib8/NY01913789/ Centricity/Domain/683/Protein% 20Synthesis%20ANSWER%20KEY.pdfhttps://www.ucvts.tec.nj.us/ cms/lib5/NJ03001805/ Centricity/Domain/274/DNA% 20Structure%20and% 20Replication%20Transcription% 20Translation%20PRACTICE% 20TEST%202013.pdfhttp://www2.ups.edu/faculty/ kirkpatrick/bio111/ studyquestions/00answers/ 13atranscrip&translation.htmhttp://www.wvschools.net/wvsd/ High%20School/HIGH%20SCHOOL% 20NEWS/Mrs.%20Aungst% 20Keystone%20Information/ Transcription%20and% 20Translation.pdfhttp://www.instruction. greenriver.edu/kmarr/ biology100/Exam%20Study% 20Guides/Exam%203/Exam_3%20% 20Practice%20Problems% 20Answer%20Key_B100_2008.htmANSWER KEY FOR PRACTICE QUESTIONS I GAVE OUT IN CLASS
Biotechnology Test Study GuideHardy Weinberg Practice:
· Review the four areas of biotechnology and know the basic definition/purpose/use of each
· Know about the basic biology of bacteria and terminology
· Know about plasmids – what are they and which organisms can have them
· Review DNA technology (PCR, Electrophoresis, transgenic organisms, cloning. Etc) – what they are, how they work, how we use them
· Know details about electrophoresis, the steps in the process, why you do it, what you learn from it and the limitations
· Know the details of how a transgenic organism is created and be able to explain all of the steps involved.
Look at SUMANAS biology site: http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/pcr.html
Circulatory System Test Study Guide
Use the Diagram to Practice:
Complete this Worksheet:
Review the Components of Blood and their Scientific Names
Study the notes on Circulation and Digestion. Good luck!