• Homework's will be posted on this page by 5 p.m.  On weekends it will be posted by noon on Saturday.
                                                ALL ASSIGNMENTS MUST BE TYPED!!
    Before each test a list of review notes will be provided. These are generally in the form of questions.  You should always complete these questions before each test early enough to see me if you have questions. 
    Final Exam Date:  Tuesday, June 20, 2017

    Location:  TBA

    Time:  12:45-2:45.  Be outside the gym by 12:15.

    Bring the following:  Pen, pencils, ruler, and a calculator

    TEXTBOOKS:  Return textbooks to our classroom between 11:30-12:00, BEFORE THE FINAL.  NO LATER.



    The following is an outline of topics:

    Order of the planets in the solar system

    Age of solar system and Earth 


       Layers of the atmosphere

       Heat-trapping gases

       Greenhouse effect

    Weathering and erosion

       Factors causing deposition

       Particle size and stream velocity

       Stream characteristics, erosion/deposition, floodplains, deltas, levees, divides 






    Mineral resources

    Energy resources: Renewable verses nonrenewable resources

       Coal, oil, natural gas , nuclear, solar, hydroelectric, wind

    Plate tectonics


    Define or explain each of the following terms:  Stream, erosion, tributary, river system, drainage basin (also called watershed), divide, gradient, discharge, channel, delta, oxbow lake, floodplain,
    Explain what is meant by the velocity of a stream.
    How does velocity of a stream affect erosion?
    What factors affect or control the velocity of a stream?
    What factors affect the discharge of a stream?
    What are the three ways that streams carry sediment?  Which carries the most sediment?
    Be able to use the particle size verses stream velocity graph to determine the velocity necessary to carry different size particles.
    What causes a point bar to form?
    What causes a levee to form?
    If you look at a diagram of a meandering stream, be able to determine where the stream is deepest and most shallow.  Know how this relates to velocity.  You should be able to draw the cross section of a stream.
    What are the characteristics of a young verses a mature stream?
    What methods can be used to prevent flooding along rivers?
    What are watersheds?  What is the largest watershed in the U.S.?
    What are the divides for the Mississippi Watershed? 

    Who was Alfred Wegener and why was his theory not accepted?
    What was the evidence used by Wegener to support his theory?
    What kind of rocks make up the ocean floor and the continents?  Which is more dense?
    Know how to use the plate tectonic map.
    What are the three types of plate boundaries?
    Be able to give examples of locations on Earth for each type of plate boundary using your map.
    How thick are plates?  What layers of the Earth are they made up?
    What makes the plates move?
    How did the  Andes Mountains, Himalayan Mountains, Cascade Mountains form?
    Understand what happens to the age of the ocean floor as you move farther from the ridge?
    Age of the Atlantic Ocean?
    What is the relationship between depth of earthquakes and location at the different plate boundaries?  In other words where do the deepest ones potentially take place, and where do they tend to be shallow only?
    What plate boundaries tend to have earthquakes without volcanoes?
    What distance do the volcanoes occur from a trench near a subduction boundary?
    What kind of boundary is found in East Aftrica?  The Red Sea?
    You should be able to name all the plates if they are left blank on the plate map.  You should also be able to recognize and label the ocean floor features discussed in class.
    What are hot spots?  How did the Hawaiian Islands form? 
    What are the types of convergent boundaries?  Name specific examples of each. 
    Make sure you understand the significance of convection to plate tectonics and what the convection looks like under a divergent boundary verses an convergent (subduction) boundary.
    What are the requirements to be a mineral?
    Know the difference between a crystal and crystalline.
     Know the chemical group for each mineral and one significant economic use (as discussed in class).
    How are halite and calcite similar and how can they be distinguished?
    What is an easy way to identify magnetite?
    Why is color not the best way to identify a mineral?
     Know the minerals samples given out in class.
    Know both types of feldspar.
    What is the most common mineral in the crust?  Second most common?  Why are they so common?
    Know the hardness of the common materials used in class:  Fingernail, penny, nail, glass, streak plate. 
    Know how to use that mineral chart.
    What is a rock?  How is it different from a mineral? 
    Understand how sedimentary rock gives clues about environment at time of deposition.
         What does cross-bedding indicate?  What do mudcracks indicate? etc. etc.
         How does the type of rock indicate environment?  Where does shale, sandstone form?
    What helps us recognize a sedimentary rock from an igneous or metamorphic rock?
    Be able to name the three groups of sedimentary rocks and give examples of each.
    Why are there two types of limestone?
    Why is coal so important?
    How does loose sediment become a sedimentary rock?
    Give examples of the three types of cement?
    What is metamorphism?
    Be able to identify all rock samples.
    What is the difference between regional and contact metamorphism?
    Know the different types of sedimentary rocks and what metamorphic rock will result from contact metamorphism?
    What is the difference between nonfoliated and foliated metamoprhic rock.
    What is the sequence from shale through the stages of metamorphism the shale undergoes?
    What is banding?
    Know how to use the three reference tables.
    What does texture mean when discussing igneous rocks?  Understand the difference between very coarse, coarse, fine, and glassy
    What is the difference between intrusive and extrusive?  
    What is the difference between lava and magma?
    What is the difference between a felsic and a mafic magma?
    What does plutonic mean?
    Why is obsidian dark when it is on the light-colored side of the igneous chart?
    How does pumice form and what do you call all those holes found in it?  Why is it so light?
    Remember:  Deeper = hotter = slower cooling = larger minerals
                   and Shallower = cooler = faster cooling = smaller minerals
    If given the percentages of different minerals in a rock, determine the name of the rock.  You must also be told something about the texture to do this.
    What are the conditions that form scoria?  Why is it dark while pumice is light-colored?
    What group of minerals are found in the igneous rocks?
    Which rock is made of 100 % olivine?
    Is quartz ever found in basalt?
    In what way are rhyolite and basalt similar?  In what way are they different?
    In what way are granite and rhyolite similar and in what way are they different?
     What is climate and how is it different then weather?
     What are the climate controls and tell how each one effects the temperature and precipitation. 
     Describe several ways that mountains can affect climate.
     List the four layers of the atmosphere.
     How thick is the troposphere?
     Where is the ozone layer found?
    What happens to temperature as you increase your altitude within the troposphere?  What happens to the amount of water vapor in the troposphere as you increase your altitude within the troposphere and what happens when you reach the stratosphere? List the heat-trapping gases and provide their chemical formula.
     What is meant by the GWP?
     What is meant by residence time? 
     How does the residence time and GWP effect climate?
    What are the fossil fuels?   Why does the burning of these fuels produce CO2?
    Why are there different layers in the atmosphere?  Why not one layer?
    Be able to determine the thickness of layers and the height of each layer.
    What are the two most common gases in the atmosphere?  Percent of each?
    Where are greenhouse gases found?  Be able to describe the visible light and infrared radiation and how they cause the greenhouse and Earth to heat up.
    Name and give the formula for each of the heat trapping gases.
    How does the temperature and precipitation of coastal areas compare with inland areas?
    Where is the ozone layer found?  What is its importance to us?  How does it become damaged?
    What are the fossil fuels?  Why are they called fossil fuels?
    What do they release when they are burned?  Why is this significant?  What is the connection between fossil fuels and climate change?
    How do ocean currents influence climate?
    What are the climate factors (controls)?  Be able to explain how each one influences temperature and precipitation. 
    When discussing global climate change, what can cause sea level to rise?
    Why are the large continental ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland difficult to melt?  Think about intensity of solar energy,  color of snow/ice, what glaciers are made up of, etc.
    Understand the soil/water lab that we did in class and be able to explain the impact on the nearby land areas close to the water and much further from the water?                                     
    Age of Earth and Universe
     Know the layers of the Earth.  Check your reference tables.
     What is the composition of the core?
     How did the Earth's atmosphere form? What is its composition?. How did Earth's oceans form?
     Name the planets in order from the Sun outward?
    Describe the distances and sizes within the solar system.
    Name the inner (terrestrial) and outer (jovian) planets.
    Which planets are similar in size and which are very different?
     Be able to use the solar system data chart
    Which planets are most dense?
    Understand what is meant by rotation and revolution of the planets.
    Where is Earth's water located?  Know some of the important percentages.  How much is salt water, how much is fresh water?
    Where is the Earth's freshwater found?  How much is usable?
    What is meant by groundwater?  What other names are used for groundwater?
    Why does groundwater move underground?  Visualize what it looks like?
    Understand the following terms:  Infiltration, transpiration, infiltration, zone of saturation, zone of aeration, water table, impermeable zone
    Describe the difference between a gaining and losing stream and be able to draw the movement of water resulting in each
    Know what porosity, permeability, and water retention are and know how each is affected by differences in sediment size
    Understand how an ordinary well works and the depth necessary so it has the least chance of going dry 
    How do artesian wells work?  What are the requirements?
    What is the cone of depression and why does it form?
    How do springs form?
    Why do wells run dry?
    How does population growth impact water use and water contamination?
    What is an earthquake?  What are the causes?
    What is the difference between a seismograph and a seismogram?
    Describe the two types of body waves?  Which one is faster?  What materials can they pass through?   
    Know how to find the epicenter of an earthquake.
    Be able to find the travel time for the P and S wave at different distances?
    Know how to find the origin time of an earthquake.
    How do we measure the magnitude?  What are the two different scales?
    How is the intensity scale different from the magnitude scale?
    What is liquefaction?  Why is it so important?  Use a real world seismic event to tel where liquefaction was a significant issue.
    What are aftershocks?  Tsunamis?
    Understand the relationship between earthquake depth and type and type of plate boundary.
    What was important about the New Madrid earthquake?  Where did it occur?
    Does New York get earthquakes?  Explain.
    How do you predict and can you prevent earthquakes?
    What should you do if you are in an earthquake? 
    What is a seismic gap?
    Review the earthquake graph to find epicenter and travel times.
                                                 Earth History 
    Earth History Chart
    A little bit of background first.  We will only use the top five columns on the upper left of the chart.  Geologic time is broken up in to units similar to centuries, decades, years, and months.  But because we are talking about the history of the Earth (4.6 billion years), the units are much longer (Eons, Era's, Periods, and Epochs which can be found at the top left of the chart above the pictures of fossils). There were two Eons, the Phanerozoic (began with the formation of the Earth) and the Precambrian (began 544 million years ago until the present).  We will focus on the Phanerozoic, which is broken in to smaller units called Era's.  There are three Eras, the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic.  Each of these is broken in to smaller units called Periods.  The Paleozoic has six periods, the Mesozoic has three periods, and the Cenozoic has two periods.  Each period is broken in to smaller units called Epochs.  The time that each time unit began and ended is shown as millions of years ago on the column between the Epochs and Life on Earth column.  The life on Earth column lists the kinds of animals or plants that lived during each time period. Lets try some questions.
    1.  When did the Cambrian Period begin and end?  Remember that the beginning date is the one at the bottom and the ending date is the more recent dat at the top.
    2.  What great event happened at the end of the Cretaceous Period?
    3.  During which period are the earliest insects found?
    4.  What Era is the Ordovician Period part of?
    5.  During which Era did dinosaurs exist?
    6.  How many years ago did dinosaurs first appear on Earth?  When did they become extinct?
    7.  How long ago did humans appear on Earth?
    8.  Did dinosaurs and humans ever coexist on Earth?  If not, how many years separated them? 
    9.  When did the earliest birds show up as fossils in rocks? 
    10. How long did the Precambrian last (billions of years)? 
    Be able to date the layers of rocks using the law of superposition, unconformities, faults and folds 
    Be able to label the location of unconformities 
    Review Questions for Energy Test:

    Give examples of fossil fuels.  Why are they called fossil fuels?

    What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable energy resources.

    What are the four stages of coal formation?  What is the percent carbon in each?

    Compare the difference in the environment in which coal and petroleum form?

    Name three things that are unique to coal and three that are unique to petroleum.

    Name three things that coal and petroleum have in common.

    The main use of coal is for……

    List five uses of petroleum.

    Draw an oil trap and identify the source rock, reservoir rock, and the cap rock.

    From which country does the U.S. get the most petroleum?

    Why is there so much oil in the Middle East?

    How do fossil fuels contribute to global climate change?

    What is the Keystone Pipeline?

    Why is the method of hydrofracking useful in removing oil/natural gas from shale, a source rock?

    How does oil form?
    What are the pros and cons regarding fracking? 
    What is an anticline and why is it significant in finding oil and trapping the oil?
    Besides coal, what other fossil fuel is used for electricity?
    What is the difference in the way we extract petroleum from tar sands verses traditional methods?
    In an oil trap what is the order that the oil, water, and natural gas are found?
    Fact:  There are 42 gallons of petroleum in a barrel of oil.  A barrel is the unit used to trade oil.  There aren't actually 'physical' barrels.
     Describe the environment in which coal forms.
     Explain the differences between peat, lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite.
    Discuss the environmental issues related to coal and oil?