(Taken from the Scarsdale Elementary Curriculum)
Phonological and Phonemic Awareness
Identify and produce spoken words that rhyme
Begin to blend beginning sound (onset) with ending sound (rime) to form known words in rhyming word families (k-it, s-it, b-it)
- Count or tap the number of syllables in spoken words
- Isolate individual sounds within spoken words ("What is the first sound you hear in can?") [Phoneme Isolation]
- Identify the same sound in different spoken words ("What sound is the same in sit, sip, and sun?") [Phoneme Identity]
- Identify a word in a set of three or four words that has a different initial sound ("Which word doesn’t belong: doll, dish, pill?") [Phoneme Categorization]
- Begin to blend spoken phonemes to form words using manipulative objects to represent each sound: /b/ /i/ /g/ [Phoneme Blending]
- Begin to segment heard words into component sounds using manipulative objects to represent each sound ("How many sounds are there in big?") [Phoneme Segmentation]
- Begin to recognize the remaining word when a phoneme is removed ("What is cat without the /k/?") [Phoneme Deletion]
- Begin to make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word ("What word do you have if you add /s/ to mile?"[Phoneme Addition]
- Substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word in the context of rhyme and song ("The word is rug. Change /g/ to /n/ or /g/ to /t/. What is the new
What is the new word?") [Phoneme Substitution]
- Understand that the purpose of print is to communicate
- Follow left-to-right and top-to-bottom direction when reading and writing
- Distinguish between letters and words
- Distinguish between text and pictures
- Begin to track print by pointing to written words when texts are read aloud by self or others
- Identify the parts of a book and their functions, including front and back covers and title page
Alphabet Recognition and Phonics
- Automatically recognize and name all lowercase letters
- Demonstrate knowledge of individual letters with their associated sounds
- Begin to demonstrate knowledge that the sequence of letters in written words represents the sequence of sounds in spoken words
- Identify consonant letter-sound correspondences
- Read own name and names of family or friends
- Read a small set of high-frequency sight words (e.g., a, the, I, my, use, is, are)
- Read familiar kindergarten-level texts at the emergent level Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development
- Learn the meaning of new words and demonstrate their use in own speech
- Learn new words from books
- Use new vocabulary words to talk about life experiences
- Connect vocabulary and life experiences to ideas in books
- Make predictions about story events
- Answer questions about text that has been read aloud
- Retell or dramatize stories and parts of stories
- Demonstrate awareness of the beginning, middle and end of a story
Motivation to Read
- Show interest in reading kindergarten-level texts from a variety of genres, such as alphabet books, stories, poems, and informational texts
- Choose to read familiar kindergarten-level texts
- Demonstrate familiarity with some book titles and authors
Letters and Words
- Recognize lower and upper case letters, practice writing them
- Begin to use lower case letters to represent written language
- Understand the relationship between letters and a word
- Demonstrate an awareness of directionality (left to right, top to bottom)
- Begin to learn about and use spaces between words when writing on a line
- Begin to learn about the concept of capitalization
- Begin to use capitalization with own name and I
- Begin to use capitalization for names, places and the beginning of sentences
- Begin to learn about and recognize ending punctuation
- Speak in sentences
- Begin to write sentences
- Begin to use transition words, e.g. before, after
- Use developing knowledge of letter-sound correspondences to spell independently (e.g., sound or invented spelling)
- Begin to use conventional spelling for some common or familiar words
- Begin to write correctly own first and last names and the names of some friends or family
- Label drawings with letters or words
- Write as part of imaginative play (e.g., playing school, store, restaurant)
- Write compositions that include letters or words and drawings to communicate for various purposes (e.g., tell stories, communicate feelings, provide information)
Motivation to Write
- Write voluntarily to communicate for multiple purposes
- Share writing with others
- count by ones, two, fives, and 10s
- compare and order numbers
- explore the concepts of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
- investigate beginning geometric and measurement concepts
- explore number patterns
- work with money and time
- collect and record data
- Living Environment
- Students are introduced to the world of living things. By investigating seeds, students learn about plant growth. During the Classroom Pets unit, students begin an ongoing study about animals. Students learn to use investigative tools such as observation to explore their world.
- Seeds: Collecting, Classifying and Growing
- - Investigate different types of seeds and describe the properties of seeds and other natural objects in the classroom, schoolyard and at home
- - Plant a seed, care for it and observe its growth
- - Observe that plants have different structures that serve different functions in growth and survival
- Classroom Pets
- - Determine that living organisms have basic needs such as water, air, food, space, shelter, etc.
- - Observe animals over time and describe changes, including growth and death
- - Understand the difference between living and non-living things
- - Observe that animals have different structures that serve different functions in growth and survival
- Physical Setting
- Students investigate the world around them by looking at different materials, learning about their own body and observing everyday weather phenomena.
- Wood, Paper, or Fabric
- - Compare different kinds of wood, paper or fabric to discover how they are alike and different
- - Experiment with different types of wood, paper or fabric
- - Observe interactions of wood, paper or fabric with water
- Our Five Senses
- - Identify the five senses and make observations using the hands, eyes, ears, nose, and tongue
- - Explain the role that the senses play in understanding the natural world
- - Use the senses to compare and classify objects to determine if they are alike or different
- Weather Observations
- - Observe weather, water, and the effects of wind
- - Record temperature and weather (hot, cold, sunny, cloudy, windy, etc.) symbolically on a large calendar
- - Discuss how changes in weather affect choices in clothing and outdoor activities as well as changes in nature (plants and animals)
- - Determine that water flows, feels wet, and can evaporate
- - Observe that wind can make things move
Social Studies Units in the Elementary Curriculum Kindergarten
Myself and Others
My identity includes my gender, ethnicity, family, language and physical self
People are unique and important
People change over time
People have wants and needs
I live in a neighborhood
All people have rights and responsibilities at home, at school, and in the neighborhood
Rules are developed to protect people
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: History/ Culture:
What are some of our physical attributes?
How are people alike and different (Physically, ethnicity,
language, gender, personal likes and dislikes)
What are our wants and needs (Shelter, food, protection,
family, love, friendship)
What happens when I grow?
How do people depend on each other?
How do people teach values, ideas and traditions? (Holidays,
celebration, stories, music etc.)
What is a family?
How are families alike and different?
What is a school? What is a community?
What is the purpose of a map and how do they help us?
What are the features of a map? (Title, keys, labels,
symbols, colors etc.)
What is a globe and what is its purpose?
How can we use a map and a globe to help us understand
next to, in between, above, below, top, bottom and middle?
How do we identify the difference between water and land
on a globe and a map?
How can we look at areas from different perspectives?
What is a neighborhood? Where is my school located in my
What is a need? What is a want?
What are the wants and needs of people and families?
What is a job and why do people work?
Who are the workers in the school community that provide
for the needs and wants of students and teachers?
What tools do people use to do their jobs?
What is the United States of America??
What is a citizen?
What are symbols of our nation? (Flag, eagle, liberty bell,
Statue of Liberty)
What are some holidays and celebrations of our nation?
What is a right? What is a responsibility? What rights and
responsibilities do we have in our classroom? (Right to a safe environment, to have our basic needs met, respect, individuality, responsibility to help others, to put things away, recycle, etc.)
What is a rule? Why do we have rules? (Safety, protection, health)