Second Grade Curriculum
English Language Arts
District uses a Balanced Literacy approach to the teaching of reading
and writing. In this approach reading and writing are not
compartmentalized but are combined to support student learning
comprehensively. Literature is the mainstay of the reading program.
Students read fiction and nonfiction materials that encompass all
content areas. Instruction occurs in whole class, small group and
instruction is based on assessment information. The District uses the
Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) as its primary assessment tool.
The information from various assessments helps the student and teacher
to identify the level of reading material that is "just right" for the
student and the skills and strategies that the student needs to work on.
differences may exist from class to class and grade to grade in the
reading materials that are used, the primary elements of the reading
program remain the same in all classes and include: Read Alouds, Shared
Reading, Guided Reading, Literature Study, Independent Reading, and Word
District uses a workshop approach to the teaching of writing. The model
helps to build a community of writers in which individuals are
supported by the teacher and by other students in the classroom. This
approach allows students to write about topics of their own choosing, to
experiment with their writing style and to practice their revision and
Like the reading program, differences may exist from grade to grade and class to class, but the primary elements of the writing
remain the same in all classes and include: Shared Writing, Interactive
Writing, Guided Writing, Independent Writing, and Word Study. Second Grade ReadingDecoding Including Phonics and Structural Analysis
- Identify and produce all letter-sound correspondences, including consonant blends/digraphs and vowel digraphs/diphthongs
sounds using knowledge of letter-sound correspondences in order to
decode unfamiliar, but decodable, multisyllabic grade-level words
by analogy using knowledge of known words in word families to read
unfamiliar grade-level words (e.g., given the known word boat, read
coat, moat, goat)
grade-level words using knowledge of word structure (e.g., roots,
prefixes, suffixes, verb endings, plurals, contractions, and compounds)
- Check accuracy of decoding by using context to monitor and self-correct
parts of a book and their purposes including author, illustrator, title
page, table of contents, index, and chapter headings
Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Developmen
- Sight-read automatically grade-level, common, high-frequency words
- Read grade-level texts with decodable and irregularly spelled words at appropriate speed, accuracy, and with expression
- Study antonyms, synonyms, and homonyms to learn new grade-level vocabulary
- Study categories of words (e.g., transportation, sports) to increase new grade-level vocabulary
root words, prefixes, suffixes, verb endings, plural nouns,
contractions, and compound words to increase new grade-level vocabulary
- Connect words and ideas in books to spoken language vocabulary and background knowledge
- Learn new words from reading books and other print sources.
- Use a dictionary to learn the meanings of words
- Read grade-level texts with comprehension and for different purposes
- Use comprehension strategies to monitor own reading (e.g., predict/confirm, reread, self-correct) and to clarify meaning of text
- Work cooperatively with peers (partners or groups) to comprehend text
- Organize text information by using graphic or semantic organizers
- Compare and contrast similarities and differences between characters and events across stories
- Compare and contrast similarities and differences in information on same topic from more than one informational text
- Comprehend and interpret information from a variety of graphic displays including diagrams, charts, tables and graphs
- Ask questions when listening to, or reading texts
- Answer literal, inferential, and critical/application questions after listening to or reading fictional and informational texts
- Summarize main ideas and supporting details from fictional or informational text, both orally and in writing
- Support a point of view with information from text
or participate in discussion about grade-level books, integrating
multiple strategies (e.g., ask questions, clarify misunderstandings,
support point of view, summarize information)
- Demonstrate comprehension of grade-level text through creative response, such as writing, drama, or oral presentation
Motivation to Read
Second Grade Writing
interest in reading a wide variety of grade-level texts, including the
genres of historical fiction, science fiction, folktales, fairy tales,
poetry, and other fictional and informational texts
- Read for own purposes and interests
- Show familiarity with the titles and authors of select grade-level books
- Read independently and silently
- Use capitals consistently for people, places, days of the week, months, holidays, book titles and movie titles
- Use periods, exclamation points and question marks as appropriate
- Recognize and begin to use quotation marks to indicate dialogue
- Use commas in a series, in the date and between city and state
- Use apostrophes in contractions
Parts of Speech
- Begin to learn a variety of sentence types, such as statements, questions and exclamations
- Use conjunctions
- Write compound sentences, connected with a conjunction
- Identify nouns, verbs and adjectives
- Distinguish between singular and plural nouns
correctly previously studied words (e.g., grade-level multisyllabic,
decodable words; irregularly spelled content and high-frequency words)
- Use spelling patterns (e.g., word families) in writing
- Represent all the sounds in a word when spelling independently
- Write in response to the reading of imaginative and informational texts
a variety of compositions with assistance, using different
organizational patterns (e.g., informational reports, such as
compare/contrast, and sequence of events; correspondence; and
- Write original text using the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, editing)
- Make judgments about relevant and irrelevant content to include in writing
- Write sentences in logical order and begin to use paragraphs to organize topics
- Vary the formality of language depending on purpose of writing (e.g., friendly letter, report)
- Begin to convey personal voice in writing
- Participate in writing conferences with teachers and peers to improve own writing and that of others
Motivation to Write
- Use legible print for all upper case and lower case letters
Second Grade Listening and SpeakingListening
- Choose to write to communicate ideas and emotions to a variety of audiences
- Choose to write for various purposes (e.g., tell stories, share information, give directions)
- Share writing with others (e.g., participate in author’s circle)
- Listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information
- Follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions
information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion,
speaking clearly at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of
- Work productively with others in teams
agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others,
speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions.
- Determine the purpose(s) for listening such as to gain information, to solve problems, and to enjoy and appreciate
- Respond appropriately to directions and questions
- Participate in rhymes, songs, conversations, and discussions
- Listen critically to interpret and evaluate
- Listen responsively to stories and other texts that are read aloud, including selections from classic and contemporary works
- Identify the musical elements of language such as rhymes, repetition, or onomatopoeia
- Audiences/Oral grammar
and adapt spoken language appropriate to the audience, purpose, and
occasion, including use of appropriate volume and rate
verbal and nonverbal communication in effective ways such as making
announcements, giving directions, or making introductions
- Ask and answer relevant questions and make contributions in small or large group discussions
- Present dramatic interpretations of experiences, stories, poems, or plays
- Use vocabulary to describe ideas, feelings, and experiences clearly
- Clarify and support spoken messages using appropriate props such as objects, pictures, charts
- Retell a spoken message by summarizing or clarifying
is an essential component of teaching and learning that empowers
students to follow their sense of wonder into new discoveries and
insights. The empowered learner calls upon information/inquiry skills to
connect with what he or she knows, to ask intriguing questions about
what is not known, to investigate the answers, to construct new
understandings, and to communicate those understandings with others.
collaborative approach by the librarian and the classroom teacher is
the most effective way to teach information fluency skills and
strategies; students need to use the skills of inquiry to learn
essential content and to construct new meaning. Instruction, designed
around an inquiry framework, generates active learning and the formation
of new understandings.
information fluency skills required for independent and lifelong
learning must follow a coherent developmentally appropriate continuum of
instruction and practice throughout grades K-12 and beyond to enable
all of our children to succeed in our fast-paced, information glutted
The information-fluent student in second grade is developing the following skills:
- Wonders ("I wonder" questions during research)
- Follows steps of inquiry process modeled by teacher and/or librarian
- Uses online resources with guidance
- Identifies the "big picture" idea
- Uses simple note-taking strategies
- Compares new information with prior knowledge
- Recognizes the purpose of a table of contents, chapter headings, and an index
- Credits sources by citing at least the author and title of books used during research
- Identifies books at his/her reading level ("just right" books)
- Chooses a variety of fiction and non-fiction
- Begins to explore various literary genres
- Compares characters and plots from different stories
- Participates in discussions and listens well
- Demonstrates respect for others' ideas
In second grade, students learn:
- numbers and place value to 1000
- addition and subtraction with and without renaming
- methods of mental addition and subtraction
- measurement concepts of length, weight and capacity
- multiplication and division
- fractions - halves, quarters and fractions of a set
- time - elapsed time and intervals
- tables and graphs
- geometry - composing and decomposing shapes
- money - addition and subtraction
- beginning algebra - finding unknowns
the year, students enhance their knowledge of animal habitats and
adaptations. They form an appreciation for the amazing biodiversity of
birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals through up-close encounters
with these species at the Bronx Zoo. During the Butterflies unit,
students observe the life cycle of a butterfly. Animal Classification and Habitats: Classroom Zoo
- Observe birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles at the Bronx Zoo
different groups of animals and how they are adapted to survive in
their environment (i.e. camouflage, defense mechanisms, hibernation,
how environmental conditions influence some animal behaviors (i.e. nest
building, hibernating, hunting, migrating, and communicating)
- Investigate the properties that animals share as living things and classify them according to their differences
- Observe, describe and record all stages of a butterfly's life cycle (egg, larva, caterpillar, chrysalis, and adult)
- Predict, compare, and discuss the larva's appearance and changes over time (drawing, written, oral)
- Relate observations of the butterfly's life cycle to students' own growth and change
will develop a growing curiosity and interest in the motion of
objects. The Balance and Motion unit explores dynamic equilibrium and
motion. During the Magnets unit, the students will conduct hands-on
investigations to form a better understanding of magnetic properties.Balance and Motion
- Investigate balance, rotation and movement of objects
- Explore the concepts of balance, counterbalance, counterweight and stability
- Discover different ways to produce rotational motion
Weather, Water and Air: Water Cycle
- Investigate the properties of magnets
- Predict and classify objects based on whether or not they are magnetic
- Observe magnetic interaction
- Understand the effect of temperature on phases of water (solid, liquid, gas)
- Understand the movement of a water droplet through the water cycle
- Graph, observe, record, and predict weather patterns
My Community and Other United States CommunitiesMajor Understandings:
- A community is a group of people that live, work, and help each other to meet their wants and needs
- There are rural, urban and suburban communities in the United States and each type of community has similarities and differences
- I live in a suburban community
- Each type of community is influenced by geographic and environmental factors
- Each type of community provides facilities and services to help meet the wants and needs of its residents
- Citizens have roles and responsibilities in their communities
History and Culture:
- What is a community?
- What are the characteristics of suburban, urban and rural communities?
- What type of community is Scarsdale? What is the history of Scarsdale?
- How do communities change over time?
events, people, traditions, values, beliefs and places make my a
community? 6. How are these events, people, traditions and places
different in suburban, urban and rural communities?
- What are roles and responsibilities of the people that live in a community?
- How and why do people in communities develop rules and laws to govern and protect community members?
- How does our local community elect and appoint leaders who make, enforce and interpret rules and laws?
- How can citizens in my community participate in decision making and problem solving?
- How is the flag of the United States a symbol of citizenship? What is the flag’s significance?
- What is a map and what is a globe? (Review)
- What is the purpose of a map and a globe? (Review)
- What are the features of a map? (Title, key, labels, symbols, colors - Review)
are the important services in Scarsdale located in relation to a point
of origin? (Is the post office east or west of Chase Park?)
- How are symbols used on a map? (Review)
- Where is our country on a map of the world?
- Where is New York on a map of the United States?
- Where is Scarsdale on a map of Westchester? Where is my home located on a map of my community?
- How are Scarsdale and the lives of its inhabitants influenced by its geography?
- How are suburban, urban and rural communities influenced by geography?
- What are wants and needs? (Review)
- What are goods and services?
- What is a public service and what is a private businesses?
- What are needs and services all communities have in common?
- How do rural, urban and suburban communities provide for the wants and needs of the residents that live there?
- How are rural, urban and suburban communities interdependent?
- What are taxes and how do the taxes collected from residents provide for local services?
- What are the goods and services the Scarsdale community provides for its residents?
in rural, urban and suburban communities must make choices due to
unlimited needs and limited resources (scarcity): For example, why do we
recycle? Why do people live in apartment buildings in New York City?
Why does the price of fruit increase in the winter?
Technology Creativity and Innovation
Communication and Collaboration
technology to express ideas using different media elements such as
text, images, sound, and voice to express knowledge and to entertain
- Begin to locate, select and use appropriate images to enhance curriculum projects
- Introduce image-editing techniques such as selecting and resizing
Research and Information Retrieval
computers to type stories, poetry, or research reports related to
curriculum using shift key to capitalize letters and using simple
- Use the computer to develop a multimedia presentation through a sequence or storyboard
- Contribute to team projects.
Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving and Decision-Making
- Use teacher-selected Web sites to locate and access information related to curriculum
- Introduce basic keyword search techniques
- Introduce the concept of taking electronic notes to enhance research
- Introduce concept of citation of sources
- Introduce strategies to collect information, solve problems and complete projects
the computer to explore math concepts such as grouping, dividing, and
understanding of geometry through a combination of shapes
- (P) Introduce basic programming commands
Technology Operations and Concepts
- Respect others' account privacy and work
- Practice safe and responsible use of online resources
- Login to network and enter password independently
- Use two hands on the keyboard most of the time. Introduce "home row" position
- Locate, open, print, and save files (with appropriate filenames) with minimal assistance